Ketogenic diets are prophylactic against malaria

Fat kills sporozoites in hepatocytes

People living in the poorest countries are the most afflicted to malaria and this may be related to nutrition. Their basic staple is rich in carbohydrates (starch). The main source of energy is thus glucose, but not lipids and ketone bodies. Glucose is food for Plasmodium which needs 60 times more of this fuel than the healthy erythrocyte. Fatty, ketogenic diet will provide less nutrients to the parasite although this has not been explored in depth. Breastfeeding seems to contribute to the immunity of newborns during 6 months and breast...

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Malaria and uric acid

Uric acid and hypoxanthine: emerging as key factor in malaria

lutgenp Blood of Plasmodium falciparum-infected persons contains large quantities of uric acid precipitates. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent of gout. Uric acid may also be beneficial: it has an extraordinary ability to scavenge radicals in the plasma and extracellular environment protecting cells from external oxidative stress. Entry of uric acid into the cells has an opposite pro-oxidant effect. Sautin YY, Johnson RJ, Uric acid:...

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Beware of dead, wilted Artemisia plants

Proline: fuel for parasites, worms, bacteria, fungi

by lutgenp After some important research work had been done some 30 years ago on amino acids, the impact these molecules might have on a vast array of diseases has been neglected. But there is increasing evidence that the amino acid proline plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of human and mammalian pathogens. Different aminoacids have different roles in malaria. Arginine was a deadly weapon against malaria gametocytes. It was found that the Plasmodium parasite tries to extrude as much as possible of arginine from the...

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Arginine kills gametocytes

Arginine stops transmission

Plasmodium falciparum is able to sequester from peripheral circulation during infection. The asexual stage parasites sequester by binding to endothelial cell receptors in the microvasculature of various organs. Gametocytes also spend the almost ten days necessary for their maturation sequestered away from the peripheral circulation before they are released in blood mainstream. In contrast to those of asexual parasites, the mechanisms and cellular interactions responsible for immature gametocyte sequestration are largely unexplored, and...

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Mosquitocidal and repellent plant extracts

Natural repellents: better than synthetic

Mosquitoes are progressively becoming resistant to industrial repellents and insecticides. This is the case for pyrethroids used on bednets. Pyrethroids are toxic. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the impact of permethrin. A fragile balance exists between the quality and quantity of insects and other invertebrates that serve as fish food. The 48-hour LC50 for rainbow trout is 0.0125 mg/L for 24 hours, and 0.0054 mg/L for 48 hours. The 48-hour LC50 in salmon is 0.0018 mg/L. As a group, synthetic pyrethroids were toxic...

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