The dormancy effect of artemisinin and derivatives

L'artemisinine source de recrudescences paludiques

But treatment failures and first signs of resistance to artemisinin soon become evident like in China with arteannuin B and artemisin monotherapy. It was due to a novel effect: a small fraction of the parasites, as a result of chemotherapeutic pressure, become ‘dormant’. Indeed, it was common to administer very high doses up to 1 200 mg/person/day. At this stage, the parasite cycle is halted, making the parasites unsusceptible to further dosing until wakening. This slows down the antimalarial activity of the drug, entailing either many...

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Cholesterol, phytosterols, malaria, chlorogenic acid and virus

Cholesterol und Phytosterole

The Plasmodium parasite needs cholesterol for survival and multiplication. This fact was well documented in a WHO document in 1977 and in subsequent papers George G. Holz, Jr. Lipids and the malarial parasite. Bull World Health Organ. 1977; 55(2-3): 237–248 Krishnegowda G, Gowda DC Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum incorporates extraneous fatty acids to its lipids without any structural modification. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2003 Nov;132(1):55-8. Moll GN, Vial HJ, Ancelin ML, Op den Kamp JA, Roelofsen B, van Deenen L....

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Polysaccharides and inulins: immunostimulants and adjuvants

Inulin stärkt das Immunsystem

Inulins and polysaccharides: immunostimulants and adjuvants. Host defense functions are responsive to diet composition. It is known since many years that inulin and oligofructose increase resistance to health challenges. Kelly-Quagliana, K.A., Nelson, P.D., Buddington, R.K. Dietary oligofructose and inulin modulate immune functions in mice. Nutr Res. 2003;23:257–267 The bioavailability of drugs with low aqueous solubility may be enhanced by inulin. Inulin has been used to produce solid dispersions or tablets of various poorly soluble...

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CYP3A4, genetics, scopoletin

Facteurs génétiques du paludisme

CYP3A4, genetics and scopoletin. In a pionneering study in 2010, the University of Louvain had studied the anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by Artemisia annua tea infusions in human intestinal Caco-2 cells Melillo de Magalhães, Yves-Jacques Schneider. Anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by Artemisia annua tea infusions in human intestinal Caco-2 cell Food Chemistry 134(2):864-71 · September 2012 These assays were done on aqueous infusionsof Artemisia annua...

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Saponin lowers iron, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol: key factors in malaria

Saponin gegen Malaria

Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. More specifically, they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foaming they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, and structurally by having one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene derivative. Most research work on Artemisia annua has ignored saponins and polysaccharides because these are only soluble in water and in the search of the golden fleece or the exceptional...

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