Beware of dead, wilted Artemisia plants

Proline: fuel for parasites, worms, bacteria, fungi

by lutgenp After some important research work had been done some 30 years ago on amino acids, the impact these molecules might have on a vast array of diseases has been neglected. But there is increasing evidence that the amino acid proline plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of human and mammalian pathogens. Different aminoacids have different roles in malaria. Arginine was a deadly weapon against malaria gametocytes. It was found that the Plasmodium parasite tries to extrude as much as possible of arginine from the...

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Arginine kills gametocytes

Arginine stops transmission

Plasmodium falciparum is able to sequester from peripheral circulation during infection. The asexual stage parasites sequester by binding to endothelial cell receptors in the microvasculature of various organs. Gametocytes also spend the almost ten days necessary for their maturation sequestered away from the peripheral circulation before they are released in blood mainstream. In contrast to those of asexual parasites, the mechanisms and cellular interactions responsible for immature gametocyte sequestration are largely unexplored, and...

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Mosquitocidal and repellent plant extracts

Natural repellents: better than synthetic

Mosquitoes are progressively becoming resistant to industrial repellents and insecticides. This is the case for pyrethroids used on bednets. Pyrethroids are toxic. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the impact of permethrin. A fragile balance exists between the quality and quantity of insects and other invertebrates that serve as fish food. The 48-hour LC50 for rainbow trout is 0.0125 mg/L for 24 hours, and 0.0054 mg/L for 48 hours. The 48-hour LC50 in salmon is 0.0018 mg/L. As a group, synthetic pyrethroids were toxic...

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Cerabral malaria, interleukin 10, nitric oxide

Artemisia cerebral malaria

Several papers published twenty, even thirty years ago should have attracted more attention. In 1992 it was found that interleukin IL-10, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibits the microbicidal activity of macrophages against intracellular Toxoplasma gondii as well as the extracellular killing of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This suppression correlates with the inhibition by IL-10 of the production of toxic nitrogen oxide metabolites, an effector mechanism previously implicated in the killing by macrophages of both parasite...

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Artemisia plants contain essential oils

Monoterpenes in Artemisia

Essential oils of Artemisia plants The essential oils of Artemisia annua have been extensively studied and the major constituents are cineole, camphene, a-pinene, germacrene, caryophyllene, camphor and artemisia ketone. They are present at concentrations of 0.20-0.25% and have shown not only different antimicrobial activities, but also anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities1. They are reduced by high drying temperatures of the herb. Artemisia ketone is a major constituent of some cultivars of A. annua. Like other ketones it inhibits...

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